Stoke Holy Cross


Drainage Mills (Windpumps)
Steam Mills

Colman's label

Stoke Holy Cross towermill stood just to the east of Stoke_Holy_Cross_watermill. In 1862 the mill was advertised for sale with four pairs of French burr stones. It was advertised again in 1867 two pairs of patent sails on a 15ft 10ins.iron windshaft were powering two pairs of stones and a sawmill, this latter configuration probably being the more accurate.

Jeremiah and James Colman entered into partnership on 15th February 1823.


Born 16 July 1777
Baptised 6 August 1777 at Ashwellthorpe
Son of ROBERT COLMAN (1749-1807) and Mary (née Harmer)
Learned business of miller at Bawburgh_watermill (then corn, later paper mill) starting there in 1802.

In March 1804 purchased smock_mill on eastern side of Magdalen Road, Pockthorpe, Norwich, near Silver Road.
Moved from Bawburgh to Norwich in July 1804.
Windmill "late JECKELL'S"
Peck, Norwich Directory 1802, Thomas Jeckell, corn merchant, 127 Magdalen Street, Norwich.
In 1814 took lease of watermill at Stoke Holy Cross.
In mid 18th Cent. a Mr. Denny (died 1767) was making paper there.
He was succeeded by a Mr. Ames who manufactured mustard.
JEREMIAH COLMAN decided to combine corn and mustard rather than revert to paper.
Married c.1794. Wife ANNE
Had no children. Died 1851 aged 74
Brother Robert had eleven sons
(1861 - 1946)
Harry Apling - c.1982


Born 18 November 1801
Taken into partnership by JEREMIAH at Stoke Holy Cross 15 February 1823
1st August 1826 married MARY BURLINGHAM at Old Buckenham.
MARY, born at Great Ellingham 24 October 1805, daughter of JOHN & MARY BURLINGHAM of Old Buckenham.
MARY ESTHER COLMAN born 27 August 1838

JAMES COLMAN died 19 October 1854 aged 53
His wife MARY died 15 September 1898 aged 92

In about 1856 the firm of J. & J. COLMAN began to transfer their mustard business to Carrow Works, Norwich, the transfer being completed in 1860.

17 May 1862, JEREMAIH JAMES COLMAN, trading as J. & J. COLMAN bought Old_Buckenham_Mill and property from JOHN & GEORGE BURLINGHAM (MARY's brothers) and HARVEY & HUDSON, bankers Norwich, their mortgagees.

In 1814 Daniel Ames, gent. leases for 21 years Stoke Holy Cross watermill to Jeremiah Colman, flour merchant. Colman covenanted to leave water wheel, pit wheel, French burr stones and boulting mill at the end of the term.
In 1825 Daniel Ames's devisees conveyed the property to Jeremiah Colman as 'Messuage and watermill with drying kiln, counting room, outhouses and waterwheel etc. and a windmill lately erected by Jeremiah Colman ...'
Jeremiah Colman borrowed £6,000 from Samuel Bignold in 1825 (mortgage giving him a Bond for the further securing of that sum.
In 1841 Jeremiah Colman, miller sold the property to Robert Kellett Long, Esq. as 'Messuage, water corn, mustard and oil mills called Stoke_Mills, windmill, starch house, Mill House, drying kilns etc. six cottages and lands in Stoke Holy Cross.

However, the firm carried on as tenants until 1862.
Long of Dunston Records - Norfolk Record Office

re Act for establishing an uniformity of Weights & Measures (1825) (5th Geo.5th (error for 4th) c.74) as from 1 January 1826

Corn Bushel Old Measure
Cubic ins.
New Measure
Cubic ins.
cubic ins.
1 quart more
Norfolk Chronicle - 3rd December 1825

We the undersigned Merchants and Millers do hereby give notice that on and from the first day of January next all Corn taken in by us will be the New Imperial Bushel as by Law established.
... J. & J. COLMAN ...
Norfolk Chronicle - 24th December 1825

Tithe Award 1844
Map: Newton & Woodrow, Norwich. 1844
Owner: Robert Kellett Long
Occupiers: Jeremiah & James Colman

No. 145: Part of Watermill, House, Yards etc. Pasture 0a. 3r. 32p.
4/- Vicar
No. 146: Mill Piece. Arable 8a. 3r. 8p. £1.1.7 Vicar
£2.11.8 Apptr.
No. 147: Windmill Piece. Arable 3a. 0r. 22p. 8/4 Vicar
19/10 Apptr.
Shows tower mill with stage

Tithe Award map 1844
Tithe Award map 1844 - redrawn by Harry Apling

To be Let. Possession at Michaelmas 1862
STOKE MILLS. Four miles from Norwich, where for many years a large and lucrative trade has been carried on by Messrs. J. & J. COLMAN, Mustard & Starch Manufacturers & Millers. The Premises comprise a Capital RESIDENCE with Entrance hall, Breakfast, Dining & Drawing rooms, 8 Bedrooms, Kitchen, Brewhouse & other Domestic offices.
A WATER_CORN-MILL containing four floors, driving seven pairs of French Stones; three Flour Mills with Wheat floor, Stage & Stowage. A WINDMILL driving four pairs of Stones with all machinery, stairs, ladders, wheels, pulleys, tackle & going gears to the same respectively.
A STEAM-POWER MILL with four floors driving four pairs of Stones, two Counting houses with Bedrooms over, loose Horse boxes, Riding & Cart horse Stables, Chaise houses & Waggon lodges, extensive Warehouses & Store rooms, Blacksmith's, Carpenter's & Cooper's Shops, several Cottages & Outhouses, Barns & 22 acres of Arable & Pasture Land attached.
The attention of Capitalists is respectfully called to the above.
For terms apply to Mr. NEWTON, Land Agent, Norwich.
Norfolk Chronicle - 8th March 1862

Sale of materials
"now forming the Steam Flour Mill with several other extensive Buildings, the Stabling, 8-bay Cart lodge and other Erections now to be sold and taken down."
Instructions from Messrs. J. & J. Colman (who are leaving Stoke Mills)
On Tuesday 15 July 1862
Norfolk Chronicle & Norfolk News - 28th June, 5th & 12th July 1862

A Baptist Chapel was built here about 20 years ago by Messrs. J. & J. Colman, but it is now used as a kind of Chapel of ease, evening service being performed in it every Sunday by the vicar.
White's 1864

Within about a Mile of Swainsthorpe Railway Station
Important to Windmillers, Landowners and Parties Building
A Tower Windmill fitted with modern patent sails, Iron windshaft, Head Wheel and other capital fittings, two pairs of nearly new French burr stones, Sawing tackle etc.
To be sold in Lots, as shown in the Catalogue or as a whole, to be determined on at the time of sale.
Five large tile, slated and asphalted Buildings and a cottage, as now standing, to be sold in suitable lots. All the above to be taken down and removed by the purchasers.
Four asphalt floors, contents about 1950 feet,inch thick.
CLOWES & SOOPER are favoured with instructions to sell the above by Auction near Stoke Holy Cross Watermill on Monday the 29th July 1867 at 11 o'c precisely.
Catalogues fully describing each lot may be obtained at the Auctioneers' offices, Bank Chambers, Norwich.
Norfolk Chronicle - 20th & 27th July & Norfolk News - 20th July 1867

FOR SALE separately or collectively and now lying at Stoke Holy Cross, a capital Iron Wind Shaft, 15 ft. 10 ins. in length; Pair of Stocks; Two pairs of Clamps; Curble fitted with Iron Segments; Worm and Spindle and other Winding Gear; Head Wheel and Gripe, Iron Wallower, Upright Shaft with Joint and Spur Wheel attached; Two Stone Nuts, Two Spindles with Cones, Two Bridge Trees with Pots and Brasses, Bridge Post etc. and about 24 feet of the Brick Tower which is standing is also for sale.
Apply at the New Mills.
Norfolk News - 17th August 1867

Mr. S. C. Colman (son of Samuel, brother of Jeremiah) tells me that: "Up to my leaving Poringland_mill in 1836, I think wind and water were the only powers used at Stoke. The windmill was exclusively used for grinding wheat and other grain."
Jeremiah James Colman - Helen C. Colman, 1905

Reckitt & Colman Food Division, Norwich. By Honor Godfrey
... a windmill was built which was dismantled before Stoke_Mill was abandoned in favour of Carrow Works.
Journal of Norfolk Industrial Archaeology Society - January 1973

O.S. Map 2005
O.S. Map 2005
Image reproduced under licence from Ordnance Survey

c.1825: Mill built

Bryant's map 1826: Windmill

Greenwood's map 1834: Windmill

White's 1836:

Jeremiah and James Colman, mustard and starch mfrs., seed crushers and corn millers (and Dowgate hill, London)

O.S. map 1838: Windmill

White's 1845:

Jeremiah and James Colman, mustard and starch mfrs., seed crushers and millers (and Dowgate-hill, London)
Here is a Baptist Chapel, built by Messrs. J. and J. Colman, who also support an Infant School.

March 1862: Mill advertised to be let along with watermill

June 1862: Steam mill buildings advertised for sale and removal

White's 1864:

Baptist Chapel here was built by Messrs. J. and J. Colman, who also support an Infant School.

White's 1864: Durrant & Co. manufacturers of patented food for pheasants and poultry

July 1867: Mill advertised for sale by auction

c.July 1867: Mill dismantled

August 1867: Mill machinery advertised for sale with 24 feet of the mill tower still standing

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Nat Grid Ref TG23350195
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